Richmond Green to Wimbledon Common: Exploring Richmond’s finest sights

Hello there my fellow walking fans and thanks for joining me as I take my next journey around London. My adventure today sees me explore Richmond’s most popular and picturesque sights. I’ll begin my walk at Richmond Green and take a stroll down to the riverside where I’ll pass by not one, but four bridges – Richmond Railway Bridge, Twickenham Bridge, Richmond Lock and Footbridge and Richmond Bridge. I’ll then take a walk up Richmond Hill to discover one of the finest views you’ll see and from there uncover Richmond Park’s amazing landscapes, including the superb Isabella Plantation. My walk will then end in woodlands of Wimbledon Common.

I have to say this walk was one of my favourites to do and was always on my list, so I hope you enjoy it as much as I did doing it!

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Richmond Green to Wimbledon Common

My walk starts at Richmond Green, which is owned by the Crown Estate and leased to the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. The Green is roughly 12 acres (4 hectares) and is overlooked by a mixture of period townhouses, historic buildings and commercial establishments, including the Richmond Lending Library.

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Richmond Green
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Richmond Green

In the Middle Ages Richmond Green was used for jousting tournaments when English monarchs were living in or visiting the area. There have been houses and commercial premises around the Green for over 400 years, which were built for people visiting Richmond Palace. Charles I brought his court to the area in 1625 to escape the plague of London and by the 18th Century these would become the homes of minor nobility, diplomats and court hangers-on.

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Richmond Green
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Richmond Green

The mid-19th Century saw the Green being cut off from the Old Deer Park as a result of the construction of the railway and this was further exacerbated by the A316 road being built in the early 20th Century.

Whenever you think of a village green, I envision a view like Richmond Green, with all its surrounding houses and spacious areas. It’s such a cute and lovely little gem of Richmond, and does perfectly illustrate all that’s wonderful about green spaces in the town.

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Richmond Green

One of the Green’s most familiar features is its association with cricket with matches being played on it since the 17th Century. The earliest reference to cricket on Richmond Green is from a 1666 letter by Sir Robert Paston, a Richmond resident. The earliest known fixture on the Green was Surrey vs. Middlesex in June 1730 – a match won by Surrey. The first reference of a team playing on the Green was in July 1743 – while today it’s the home to two village teams playing there. One cricketing feature of the Green is the beautiful pub called The Cricketers. I’d love to one day play on the Green as it’s got that real village cricket feel about it!

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The Cricketers Pub

I’ll now leave Richmond Green and head towards the picturesque Richmond waterfront where I’ll find not one, but four bridges! Down by the river is really like something from a postcard and would make a wonderful watercolour painting!

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Richmond Waterfront
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Richmond Waterfront
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Blooming Lovely Richmond
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Richmond Waterfront

As you head away from the waterfront and Richmond Bridge, you come to the first of three bridges in a row, Richmond Railway Bridge. After the railway came to Richmond in 1846, the line was extended to Windsor, which meant a bridge was required to pass over the Thames. The original bridge was designed by Joseph Locke and J.E. Errington, opening in 1848. The bridge’s design and structure were similar to Barnes Bridge, which also used three 100 foot cast iron girders supported on a stone-faced land arches with two stone-faced river piers.

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Richmond Railway Bridge

The bridge was rebuilt in 1908 after concerns were raised about its structural integrity. Further developments occurred in 1984 with its main bridge girders and decking being replaced. In 2008 the bridge was declared a Grade II listed structure to preserve it.

The most striking aspect of the bridge for me is its colour, such a bright and radiant yellow really adds elegance to it. I’m a huge fan of its structure and character, does have a real waterway feel about it.

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Richmond Railway Bridge
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View of Richmond Railway Bridge from Twickenham Bridge

Right next to Richmond Railway Bridge is Twickenham Bridge, which opened in 1933 and carries both cars and pedestrians across it. The bridge was constructed for the new Chertsey Arterial Road, which connects the Old Deer Park on the south bank of the river and St. Margarets on the north bank. The name of the bridge derives from the fact it’s on the road to the town Twickenham, which is approximately 3km upstream from the bridge.

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Twickenham Bridge

The bridge’s architect was Maxwell Ayrton, with Alfred Dryland being the head engineer. The bridge incorporates three permanent hinges enabling the structure to adjust to changes in temperature, and was the first reinforced concrete bridge structure in the UK to use such an innovation. The arch springings, as well as the arch crowns, have decorative bronze cover plates. One notable and historic element of the bridge is that in 1992 the first Gatso speed camera in the UK was placed there.  Like Richmond Railway Bridge, it was declared a Grade II listed structure in 2008.

Once again the colour of the bridge glistening in the sunshine and reflecting in the water adds to its beauty. There really aren’t too many more lovely sights than a bridge over a river, and luckily London provides so many of these views.

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Twickenham Bridge
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View of Richmond Lock and Footbridge from Twickenham Bridge

The final bridge in the trio is the unique Richmond Lock and Footbridge, which opened in 1894. The bridge is a lock, rising and falling low-tide barrage integrating controlled sluices and paired with pedestrian bridges. The Grade II listed structure is the furthest downstream of the 45 Thames locks and the one and only operated by the Port of London Authority.

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Richmond Lock and Footbridge
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Richmond Lock and Footbridge

It connects the promenade at Richmond with the neighbouring district of St. Margarets on the west bank. At high tide the sluice gates are raised and partly hidden behind metal arches forming twin footbridges. The lock bridge was built to maintain the lowest-lying head of water of the 45 navigable reaches of the Thames above the rest of the Tideway. Below the structure for a few miles, at low tide, the navigable channel is narrow and restricts access for vessels with the greatest draft. The next major point of mooring below the lock is at Brentford Dock.

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Richmond Lock and Footbridge
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Richmond Lock and Footbridge
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View from Richmond Lock and Footbridge

I’ve explored many of London’s bridges, but this one is so distinct, never have I explored one which has a lock within it. It’s such a quirky structure and so different to the other locks I’ve walked past on my routes. An architectural piece of brilliance, it has a grand and historical nature about it. The one thing also that struck me was how complex the bridge is, as it isn’t just a normal bridge, there’s so many technical aspects within it to function the lock. Also the view from it is something to behold across the Thames of the other bridges and it feels quite eerily as you’re quite high up, so you can only hear the breeze of the wind.

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Richmond Lock and Footbridge
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View Richmond Lock and Footbridge
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View from Richmond Lock and Footbridge
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Richmond Lock and Footbridge

I’ll now take a stroll back to Richmond’s waterfront towards my next stop on today’s walk, Richmond Bridge.

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Richmond Waterfront
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Richmond Waterfront
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Richmond Waterfront

I just love the riverside area in Richmond, it has such a special feel about it as it’s not like other parts of London that are along the Thames. – it has the essence of a small village. Richmond is known for being an affluent place and the estate like buildings on the waterfront promenade do illustrate that wealthy reputation.

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Richmond Waterfront
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Richmond Waterfront
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Richmond Waterfront
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Richmond Waterfront

Beside the waterfront sits the pretty Richmond Bridge, which opened in 1777 as a replacement for a ferry crossing which connected Richmond town centre on the east bank with its neighbouring district of East Twickenham to the west. Designed by James Paine and Kenton Couse, the stone arch bridge had tolls charged on it until 1859.  A grade I listed structure, the bridge was widened and slightly flattened between 1937 and 1940, but otherwise still conforms to its original design.

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Richmond Bridge
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Richmond Bridge

Today, it’s the oldest surviving Thames bridge in London and you can’t help but be taken in my its splendour. The historical significance of it really comes through in its stone structure and I have to say it’s one of my favourite bridges in London, which is a bold statement as there are so many wonderful structures to choose from! It’s the ideal vantage point to see across Richmond’s pretty waterfront.

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View from Richmond Bridge
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View from Richmond Bridge

I’ll now follow the river as it meanders its way through Richmond and take a detour to my next stop today, Richmond Hill.

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Richmond River
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Richmond River

I’ve taken in some amazing views of London, whether that’s from Parliament Hill or Stave Hill or Sydenham or Alexandra Palace, but the one from Richmond Hill is something so special. Unlike the other aforementioned viewpoints, you get a different perspective from the hill as you can’t see any of London’s iconic landmarks, more the pleasant sight of trees and the river, it feels like the countryside. The awe-inspiring view for me demonstrates why I love London so much, as you uncover something new and thrilling with every area you explore.

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Richmond Hill
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Richmond Hill
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Richmond Hill
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Richmond Hill
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Richmond Hill

A walk down the path and taking a left at the bottom of the hill brings you to the vast Petersham Meadows.

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Petersham Meadows
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Petersham Meadows
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Petersham Meadows
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Petersham Meadows

After you’ve walked through the meadows you come to the remarkable Richmond Park! The park was created by Charles I in the 17th Century as a deer park and is the largest of London’s Royal Parks. At 955 hectares (2,360 acres) it’s also the second largest park in London, after the 4,046 hectares (10,000 acres) Lee Valley Park and is Britain’s second largest urban walled park after Sutton Park in Birmingham. To put that into further perspective, Richmond Park is around three times the size of Central Park in New York!

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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park

One of the most amazing parts of London, the park is a national nature reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation with Grade I listing. An Historic England site, its landscapes have inspired many famous artists and been the setting for several films and TV programmes.

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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park

Richmond Park includes many buildings of architectural or historic interest. The Grade 1 listed White Lodge was formerly a royal residence and is now home to the Royal Ballet School. The park’s boundary walls and ten other buildings are listed as a Grade II listing, including Pembroke Lodge, the home of 19th Century British Prime Minister Lord John Russell and his grandson, the philosopher Bertrand Russell.

Historically the preserve of the monarch, the park is now open for all to use and includes a golf course and other facilities for sport and recreation. It played an important role in both world wars and in the 1948 and 2012 Olympics.

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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park

The great thing about Richmond Park is that it combines so many incredible elements – a wonderful view, picturesque gardens, spacious splendour and hidden gems. You can’t underestimate just how big it is and with every step you take you encounter more and more of its awesomeness and can truly get lost within all its beauty.

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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park

Now I was walking around Richmond Park and I thought, there’s one thing the park is known for which I’ve still not seen… deers! But luckily that changed as I came across the majestic sight of a herd of deer! They’re so tame and you can get so close to them without them getting scared. If you approach them slowly and quietly, you can get such a great photo, and this was the closest I’d ever gotten to them, and might ever get to see them. There aren’t too many places in London where you can get to meet such amazing creatures, and this has to be the first time I’ve come across an animal like it on my walks!

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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park
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Richmond Park

A distinct part of Richmond Park is its picturesque Isabella Plantation, which is a 16 hectare (40 acre) woodland garden planted in the 1830s. It first opened to the public in 1953 and is best known for its evergreen azaleas, which line its ponds and streams.

Located in the gardens are the National Collection of Wilson 50 Kurume Azaelas (introduced to the west from Japan in the 1920’s by the plant collector Ernest Wilson), large collections of Rhododendrons and Camellias, plus many other rare and unusual trees and shrubs.

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Isabella Plantation
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Isabella Plantation
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Isabella Plantation
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Isabella Plantation

I immediately fell in love with the gardens with all its cute streams, colourful plants and tranquility. You can tell there’s definitely a Japanese influence on it and it did remind me quite a bit of my walk around Kyoto Garden in Holland Park.

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Isabella Plantation
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Isabella Plantation
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Isabella Plantation
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Isabella Plantation
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Isabella Plantation

My final destination on this edition of the London Wlogger is Wimbledon Common, which is a short walk from Richmond Park. Now on my walks I’ve seen quite a lot of sights, but this had to be one of the weirdest things yet… a pedestrian crossing button… where there’s no road or crossing! Very odd indeed!

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Mystery Traffic Light

Wimbledon Common is a large open space made up of three areas – Wimbledon Common, Putney Heath and Putney Lower Common, which together are managed under the name Wimbledon and Putney Commons. The area is 460 hectares (1,140 acres) of protected woodland and common land, and is the largest expanse of heathland in the London area.

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Wimbledon Common
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Wimbledon Common

In 1864, the lord of the manor, Earl Spencer, who owned Wimbledon manor, attempted to pass a private parliamentary bill to enclose the Common for the creation of a new park with a house and gardens and to sell part for building. In a landmark decision for English common land, and following an enquiry, permission was refused and a board of conservators was established in 1871 to take ownership of the common and preserve it in its natural condition.

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Wimbledon Common
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Wimbledon Common
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Wimbledon Common

In the 19th Century the windmill in the common was the headquarters of the National Rifle Association and drew large crowds each July. These annual gatherings were attended by the élite of fashion. The Common is also home to The Wombles, a series of characters created by Elizabeth Beresford, who later got their own TV show and musical group!

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Wimbledon Common
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Wimbledon Common

The Common once again offers the blend of breathtaking natural sights with many hidden treasures and pathways. I really loved the tall trees, which tower above you when you walk through them. It truly is the most wonderful of places to finish my walk!

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Wimbledon Common
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Wimbledon Common
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Wimbledon Common

Well it has been a splendid walk where I’ve explored the best that Richmond has to offer – with its bridges, views and park, and then finishing like many of my walks before have done, in marvellous woodland setting!

Thanks for joining me and in the meantime you can follow all my walks on Twitter and Instagram, and don’t forget to sign up to my blog too so you don’t miss a post! Also why not have a read of my other walks which explore all over London, from north to south, to west to east via central, there’s something there for you! 🙂 Here are the links to them all below for you!

Victoria to Green Park

Marble Arch to Mayfair

The Shard to Monument

King’s Cross to Hampstead Heath

Leadenhall Market to Old Spitalfields Market

Waterloo to The London Eye

St Paul’s Cathedral to Moorgate

Mile End Park to London Fields

Hyde Park Corner to Italian Gardens

Little Venice to Abbey Road

Regent’s Park to Soho Square

Clapham Common to The Albert Bridge

Grosvenor Gardens to Knightsbridge

Holland Park to Meanwhile Gardens

Hackney Downs to Springfield Park

Tower Bridge to Stave Hill

Shoreditch to Islington Green

Highgate to Finsbury Park

Ravenscourt Park to Wormwood Scrubs

Covent Garden to Southwark Bridge

Putney Bridge to Barnes Common

Westminster Abbey to Vauxhall Bridge

Crystal Palace Park to Dulwich Wood

Clapham Junction to Battersea Bridge

Norbury Park to Tooting Commons

Lesnes Abbey Woods to the Thames Barrier

Sources:

All photos taken by London Wlogger © Copyright 2019

Information about Richmond Green

Information about Richmond Railway Bridge

Information about Twickenham Bridge

Information about Richmond Lock and Footbridge

Information about Richmond Bridge

Information about Richmond Park

Information about the Isabella Plantation

Information about Wimbledon Common

Clapham Junction to Battersea Bridge: Discovering Wandsworth and Battersea

Why hello there, and thanks for joining me on my next expedition of London. Today’s journey will see me explore south of the capital, as I begin at the iconic Clapham Junction station, take a stroll through Wandsworth Common and Wandsworth Bridge, before passing by Battersea Railway Bridge, and concluding at Battersea Bridge. It’s a walking adventure which has everything you love in London – the Thames, bridges, and parks!

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Clapham Junction to Battersea Bridge

I start my walk at Clapham Junction train station, which is actually technically based in Battersea.  Before there was a railway, the area was rural, and was known for growing lavender, which is where the street name outside the station, ‘Lavender Hill’ derives from. There was a coach road from London to Guildford near where the south part of the station is now located.

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Clapham Junction Station

On 21 May 1838 the London and South Western Railway was formed after the merging of the London and Southampton Railway, which lead to the opening of the line from Nine Elms to Woking. This was the first railway through the area, however, it still didn’t have a station on the site. A second line between Nine Elms and Richmond opened on 27 July 1846, and then a line opened to London Victoria in 1860. This lead to the opening of Clapham Junction on 2 March 1863 as an interchange station between the lines from London, Brighton, the South Coast, and West London.

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Clapham Junction Station

Despite being in Battersea, the station has been stated as located in Clapham. One of the reasons given for this was partly due to the railway companies trying to attract middle and upper class clientele to the site, as Clapham was seen as more fashionable than the industrial Battersea, so they used this factor for station’s name.

Clapham Junction today has about 2,000 trains passing through it every day, which is the most for any station in Europe. At peak times 180 trains per hour will pass through the stations, with 117 stopping. About 430,000 passengers during the day on weekdays will pass through the station, which still doesn’t make it the highest by volume, as Waterloo has that honour.

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Clapham Junction Station

With 17 platforms there are mainline links from London to Surrey, Kent, Sussex, Hampshire and the outskirts of London, as well as other parts of London via the London Overground. The station announcements are currently made by Celia Drummond and the late Phil Sayer.

As someone who uses the station on a regularly basis during peak hours, it’s a whole experience in itself, with the hustle and bustle of busy commuters, all with their own set destinations in mind, and there’s no time to stop and ponder!

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Clapham Junction Station

I’ll now leave the station to head to my next destination, Wandsworth Common. Now of course, I could hop on a train to the common which has a station right next to it, but this is a walking blog of course!

Just outside the station there’s a memorial plaque to remember those who lost their lives in the Clapham Junction railway crash back on 12 December 1988, when three trains collided with each other, killing 35 people and injuring 484.

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Clapham Junction Crash Memorial

Walking from there I head to the 69.43 hectare (171.6 acres), Wandsworth Common, which is a real south London gem of natural wonders and recreation. Back in the 1860s with the expansion of London, its railways, and the 4th Earl of Spencer selling off parts of the Common, there was demand to protect the area. This resulted in the Wandsworth Common Act 1871 being created to help ensure its future was secure.

After the creation of the London County Council (LCC) in 1890, which became the owner of the Common, it would turn the rubbish-strewn unkempt space, into the island of tranquility that we see today. In 1965 the LCC became the GLC, and the ownership of Wandsworth Common was handled by Wandsworth Borough Council. In addition to its own Act of Parliament, The Commons Act 2006 also ensures its safeguarding. The Common is split into twelve separate sections, and includes everything from an area for football, cricket and rugby, a playground, trees and plants, as well as a large lake.

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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common

Wandsworth Common is classed as a site of importance, so much so it has a Grade 1 status for nature conservation. It includes nine different ecological habitats, which cover grassland, woodlands, meadows, trees, plantation, amphibian wetland, and the pond and lakes.

The grassland throughout the Common is ideal for wild flowers, butterflies, grasshoppers, and other insects, and the tiny holes in the ground provide a solitary residence for bees.

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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common

There are a number of woodland areas whilst you walk through the vast space of the Common, which are a perfect place for grasses, shrubs, mosses, wild flowers, and plants to thrive. As well as the plants, the woodlands are a great habitat for beetles, centipedes, birds, and bats to enjoy.

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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common

One of the distinct elements of the Common is its water oasis which is teeming with life – from ducks and geese, to pond skaters and dragonflies, and fish and newts. It’s somewhere that covers every facet of nature and everything you could wish for to help all creatures and plants to survive and thrive. Being someone who loves being in the great outdoors and always loves exploring natural beauty like this, it’s refreshing and exciting to know that as time goes on, these essential areas are kept and maintained so splendidly.

This area does remind me of my walk to the neighbouring Clapham Common which has the perfect beautiful combination of ponds, green space, and trees too.

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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common
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Wandsworth Common

It’s time to leave Wandsworth Common and head down the long Trinity Road to my next stop, Wandsworth Bridge. The first bridge on the site was a toll bridge built by Julian Tolme in 1873, in the expectation that once the Hammersmith and City Railway terminus was built there would be an increase in the number of people wanting to cross over the river at this part along the Thames.

However, the railway terminus was never built and drainage problems made it difficult for vehicles to cross, which ultimately made Wandsworth Bridge commercially unsuccessful. As a result in 1880 it was taken into public ownership and the toll was removed. Although in 1926 a Royal Commission suggested that it should be replaced as it was too weak and narrow for buses.

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Wandsworth Bridge
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Wandsworth Bridge

Just over ten years later the bridge was demolished, and replaced with a steel cantilever bridge designed by Sir Thomas Peirson Frank, which opened in 1940, and is the bridge we see today. When it was opened it was painted in dull shades of blue as a camouflage against air raids, and this colour has remained ever since.

The length of the bridge is 650ft (200m), with a width of 60ft (18m). It proceeds Fulham Railway Bridge and follows Battersea Railway Bridge, and is one of the busiest bridges in London with over 50,000 vehicles a day going over it. It’s been given the name by many as being one of London’s most boring bridges, but I don’t buy that as I really love the colour of it as it compliments the blue of the river and the sky nicely.

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View from Wandsworth Bridge
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View from Wandsworth Bridge

Walking beyond Wandsworth Bridge along the Battersea Reach apartment complex, you walk past The Tidal Thames planting project which is a series of plants that were laid out near the river banks in 2005 when the complex was developed. Amongst this and across the Thames you’ll find an array of fish, birds, creatures, insects, and plants.

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Along the Battersea Reach

Whilst I stroll along the river towards Battersea Railway Bridge I pass this helipad and was lucky enough to see the helicopter landing, which was a pretty surreal experience!

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Along the Battersea Reach

The walk takes me to the second of the three bridges that I’ll discover on my walk, Battersea Railway Bridge. Designed by William Baker, who was the chief engineer of the London and North Western Railway, the bridge opened on 2 March 1863 at a cost of £87,000 (£8.2m in today’s money). The bridge is 754ft (230m) in length, with a width of 34ft (10.5m), and carries two railway tracks on it which lead into Imperial Wharf station.

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Battersea Railway Bridge

Consisting of five 120ft (37m) lattice girder arches set on stone piers, the bridge has been strengthened and refurbished twice – once in 1969 and again in 1992. The bridge was given the honour of Grade II listed status in 2008 to protect it from unsympathetic development. I personally really like Battersea Railway Bridge, especially the colour and cross design, something very satisfying and aesthetically pleasing about it. Also I find the fact that neither cars nor pedestrians can go across it adds to its uniqueness, as there aren’t too many bridges in London which are specifically for trains.

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Battersea Railway Bridge

I’ll now keep walking along the river onto my final sight on my walk, Battersea Bridge. Like with the original Wandsworth Bridge, the first Battersea Bridge was also a toll bridge, and was commissioned by John, Earl Spencer, who’d recently acquired the rights to operate a ferry on the Thames. There were plans to build the bridge out of stone, however, this was deemed to be too expensive, so a cheaper wooden one was built instead. The original bridge was designed by Henry Holland and only opened to pedestrians in 1771, and then to vehicle traffic in 1772.

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Battersea Bridge

Unfortunately, the bridge was poorly designed, and quite dangerous for those passing over it, as well as ships and boats who would often collide with it! Iron girders were installed, in addition to removing two piers from it to avoid the ships from colliding with it. It was in fact the last surviving wooden bridge on the Thames despite all its problems, and has inspired many artists including J. M. W. Turner, John Sell Cotman, and James McNeill Whistler to paint about it.

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Battersea Bridge

The bridge would be taken into public ownership in 1879, before being demolished in 1885. It was replaced with the structure we see today, which was designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, and built by John Mowlem & Co. It’s the narrowest of London’s bridges, and surprisingly one of the least busy, though I certainly didn’t feel that when I was on it!

The golden colouring of the bridge makes it really distinctive and eye-catching – and I personally love the lamp posts on it too, which adds a great deal of character to it. Whilst standing on the bridge you can see The Albert Bridge as well as Battersea Park and The Shard.

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View from Battersea Bridge

Well that’s all from me on this expedition of the capital, which has seen me explore some of the iconic bridges of south London, as well as one of the busiest railway stations in Europe and a captivating common. What are your memories of Wandsworth and Battersea? Have you explored them recently? Share your thoughts in the comments section, I’d love to hear from you!

Thanks for joining me and in the meantime you can follow all my walks on Twitter and Instagram, and don’t forget to sign up to my blog too so you don’t miss a post! Also why not have a read of my other walks which explore all over London, from north to south, to west to east via central, there’s something there for you! 🙂 Here are the links to them all below for you!

Victoria to Green Park

Marble Arch to Mayfair

The Shard to Monument

King’s Cross to Hampstead Heath

Leadenhall Market to Old Spitalfields Market

Waterloo to The London Eye

St Paul’s Cathedral to Moorgate

Mile End Park to London Fields

Hyde Park Corner to Italian Gardens

Little Venice to Abbey Road

Regent’s Park to Soho Square

Clapham Common to The Albert Bridge

Grosvenor Gardens to Knightsbridge

Holland Park to Meanwhile Gardens

Hackney Downs to Springfield Park

Tower Bridge to Stave Hill

Shoreditch to Islington Green

Highgate to Finsbury Park

Ravenscourt Park to Wormwood Scrubs

Covent Garden to Southwark Bridge

Putney Bridge to Barnes Common

Westminster Abbey to Vauxhall Bridge

Crystal Palace Park to Dulwich Wood

Sources: (not the food sauces)

All photos taken by London Wlogger © Copyright 2019

Information about Clapham Junction: Railway Wonders of the World

Information about Wandsworth Common: The Friends of Wandsworth Common

Information about Wandsworth Bridge: British History Online

Information about Battersea Railway Bridge: Know Your London

Information about Battersea Bridge: Londonist

Putney Bridge to Barnes Green: Meandering along the River Thames

A very good day to you all and thanks for joining me on my next walk across the capital! Today’s expedition sees me begin at the picturesque Putney Bridge before walking through Bishop’s Park and then to the home of Fulham Football Club, Craven Cottage. I’ll then take a stroll along the Thames past Hammersmith Bridge, through Chiswick, over Barnes Bridge and to Barnes Common with my journey ending at Barnes Green! Time to grab those walking boots and start the adventures!

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Putney Bridge to Barnes Green

My walk starts in West London at Putney Bridge which is the second bridge on the site. The first was opened in 1729 which at time was known as Fulham Bridge. The bridges development came as a result of both demand from the public and then Prime Minister Robert Walpole for a bridge to cross over the Thames.

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Putney Bridge

Previously, the only way to go from one side of the bank to the other was by a ferry crossing. The deciding factor for Walpole was when he had to attend a debate at the House of Commons but found that the ferry was unattended on the opposite side of the river, with the ferryman in the nearby pub drinking! Despite trying to get the ferryman’s attention, Walpole was unsuccessful and had to get to Parliament the longer way round. This prompted the decision to build the first bridge in Putney.

The bridge was made out of wood with 26 arches to connect Putney and Fulham, and it was the first bridge to be built over the Thames since London Bridge.  The original bridge was also once a toll bridge which in its first few years netted £1,500 per year in tolls, which in today’s money would be £130,000. In 1877 when all the bridges in London were taken into public ownership, the toll was removed. This was also prompted after it was  purchased by The Metropolitan Board of Works in 1879.

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Putney Bridge

The second bridge and the stone one we see today was designed by civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette and completed in 1886. The bridge is 700 ft long and 43 ft wide, with it being opened by King Edward VII and the Princess of Wales on the 29th May 1886.

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View from Putney Bridge
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View from Putney Bridge of the Tube Bridge

Putney Bridge has the distinction of being the only bridge in Britain with churches on either side of it. On the north bank is All Saints’ Church with St Mary’s Church on the south bank.

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All Saints’ Church
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All Saints’ Church
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All Saints’ Church
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St Mary’s Church
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St Mary’s Church

The bridge has been quoted many times as the starting point for The Boat Race between Oxford University and Cambridge University since 1845 when the course was revised. However, the actual starting point is a little further upstream!

I have to say Putney Bridge is one of my favourite bridges in London as the design of it is so elegant and grand, perhaps because of the stone it’s made out of makes it look more picturesque than the other bridges over the Thames. I also really enjoy the view you get from either side with the tubes going over the river on one side, something not normally accustomed to London as you always relate the London Underground with being… underground! Whilst on the other side the trees along the embankment and beautiful clear, crisp water that flows into the distance.

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View from Putney Bridge
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View from Putney Bridge of Bishop’s Park

I’ll now leave Putney Bridge and make my way to the neighbouring Bishop’s Park which sits right next to the bridge. Opened in 1893 by the chairman of the London County Council Sir John Hutton, the Grade II listed park was formerly owned by the Ecclesiastical and Church Estates Commissioners for England as Lords of the Manor of Fulham. This had been given to the Fulham District Board of Works on condition that it be laid out and maintained for public recreation.

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Bishop’s Park
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Bishop’s Park
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Bishop’s Park

The meadows had been protected from flooding as a result of the creation of an embankment by the river which was built between 1889 and 1893 by Joseph Mears, who was the father of Joseph Mears and Gus Mears, the founders of Chelsea Football Club.

I do really love the walk along the Thames near the embankment, it’s so pretty with so much character with the river, path, trees and open fields all on display when you walk through it. Also as I mentioned in my last walk of Covent Garden to Southwark Bridge, I do enjoy branches hanging over the wall with the water in sight!

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Walk on the Edge of Bishop’s Park
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Looking out from Bishop’s Park

The Ecclesiastical and Church Estates Commissioners for England sold off the house and gardens in 1894, with the house being demolished in 1897. The gardens were preserved and opened as an extension to Bishop’s Park in 1900 as a result of the extension of the river walk.

The park today has a vast area of playground facilities and a beautiful pond with perhaps the cutest and colourful small footbridge you’ll see! (You’ll notice the difference in the leaves for the pond photo, as on the day I did the walk this area was closed off, the photo here was one I took back in April!)

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Bishop’s Park
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Bishop’s Park

Just outside Bishop’s Park you find my next stop on my walk, Craven Cottage football ground! The stadium has been the home of Fulham Football Club since 1896 with a capacity of 25,700. Before it was the residence of Fulham FC, there was a cottage built on the site in 1780 by William Craven, the sixth Baron Craven. Before this the surrounding areas were woods which made up part of Anne Boleyn’s hunting grounds.

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Craven Cottage

The writer of The Last Days of Pompeii, Edward Bulwer-Lytton, lived in the cottage until it was destroyed by a fire in May 1888. Some other rumoured former tenants at the cottage included Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Jeremy Bentham, Florence Nightingale and even Queen Victoria, although there is not much evidence of this!

The area was abandoned following a fire before it became the home of Fulham FC who had had eight previous grounds. The old cottage is still present in the stadium today at the corner of the pitch.

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Craven Cottage

After a walk down a small alley by the stadium, I rejoin the sublime riverside walk along the Thames which will lead me to Hammersmith Bridge! This is one of the most satisfying and relaxing walks by the Thames given that it’s so quiet with natural beauty of the trees on the other side of the bank.

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View of the Thames near Craven Cottage
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En Route to Hammersmith Bridge
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En Route to Hammersmith Bridge

Just before you reach Hammersmith Bridge you pass by the Harrods Furniture Depository which was built on an old soap factory in 1894 as a storage centre for larger items which couldn’t be stored in the world-famous Harrods department store in Knightsbridge. The current building that I walked past dates back to 1914 and was built by architect W.G.Hunt.

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Harrods Furniture Depository

The building which has Grade II listed status is no longer owned by Harrods but has retained many of its original features. In 2000 it was converted into a residential estate with 250 townhouses and penthouses known as Harrods Village. Looking out on the Thames and Hammersmith Bridge isn’t a bad view!

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Harrods Furniture Depository

Right next to the Harrods Furniture Depository, I come across another one of the capital’s stunning bridges, Hammersmith Bridge! Like with many of London bridges, the structure we see today isn’t the original one. Designed by William Tierney Clark the first Hammersmith Bridge opened in 1827 and was the first suspension bridge over the Thames.  By the 1870s the bridge was no longer strong enough to support the weight of the heavy traffic and in 1884 a temporary bridge was put up to allow more limited cross-river traffic while a replacement was constructed.

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Hammersmith Bridge

The current Hammersmith Bridge was designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette with it being opened by the Prince of Wales in 1887. At 700 feet long and 43 feet wide, it cost £82,117 to build with it being built by Dixon, Appleby & Thorne.  The bridge has not been without its structural problems and has been closed on numerous occasions as a result of the weight and volume of traffic across it, something that wasn’t anticipated when it was built given that it’s not within central London.

This has led to serve weight restrictions on the bridge with only one bus in each direction permitted on the bridge at any one time. Consequently, as a result of this problem, there have been substantial improvements to it in 1998, 2000, 2016 and 2017.

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Hammersmith Bridge

One of the unique aspects of Hammersmith Bridge is that it is the lowest bridge in London with a water clearance of just 12 feet at high tide, which makes it prone to flooding. The bridge was originally painted green before changing its colours to pale pink, however, in 2000 it reverted back to its original green colour, something I think makes it so distinct!

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Hammersmith Bridge Crests

On the ends of the bridge, there are seven coats of arms including the Royal Arms of the UK in the centre, the coat of arms of the City of London; Kent; Guildford; the original coat of arms of the City of Westminster, the coat of arms of Colchester, and Middlesex.

There aren’t too many suspension bridges in London over the Thames as many of them are built with stone, so this makes Hammersmith Bridge much more special than the others, as it has a real grandness and presence about it. It’s not just the colour I love, but how historical and powerful the pillars are on it. It also looks much longer than all the other bridges in London which again adds to its uniqueness and awe-inspiring nature.  The view across the water and onto the banks adds to the wonderful splendour of the bridge as you see the river meander its way around.

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View from Hammersmith Bridge
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View from Hammersmith Bridge

A short walk from Hammersmith Bridge takes me to Furnival Gardens which had an active fishing trade until 200 years ago with the creek eventually being filled in in 1936. The parks name derives from scholar Dr Frederick James Furnivall, who founded what is now the Furnivall Sculling Club in 1896.

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Furnival Gardens

Just by the gardens my walk takes me past many small alleyways through Chiswick with the Thames on my left and houses on my right, and a pathway in between. It really is a journey that keeps on giving and provides me with so many reasons why I love London so much and also why every area is so different.

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Chiswick River Walk
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Chiswick River Walk
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Houses of Chiswick

One of the amazing aspects of London are its hidden gems which includes its cute little houses, and there are many of these to see on my walk as I go through Chiswick. Each and everyone I’d love to live in, as they all look like they’re from a fairytale!

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Houses of Chiswick
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Houses of Chiswick
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Houses of Chiswick

There aren’t just the small cute cottages on my journey, but the real grand estates which have perhaps the quirkiest and coolest front gardens ever which overlook the Thames, with the road in between them and the house.

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Houses of Chiswick
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Cool Front Gardens!
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Cool Front Gardens!
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Cool Front Gardens!

Opposite some of the rows of houses you can walk out on the river when the tides out and get a better view across the water giving you a different perspective of it, and it’s eerily quiet with only the sound of trickling water due to the quiet residential area.

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Chiswick River Walk
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Chiswick River Walk
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Chiswick River Walk
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Chiswick River Walk

At the end of the houses a walk along the Thames will take me onto my next destination, Dukes Meadows.

Located in Chiswick, the delightful Dukes Meadows was purchased from the Duke of Devonshire in 1923. A seaside-type promenade and the bandstands were opened by Prince Albert, Duke of York in 1926. In 1998 a group of local people formed the Dukes Meadows Trust which has the aim to protect the park. When you enter the park there are two ceramic markers which were installed in 2002.

I absolutely love this walk through the park past the open spaces, trees, bandstands and besides the Thames as it’s a woodland of natural mysteries and like many of my walks you don’t realise you’re still within London. When we think of the Thames Path and walking along it, we might normally think of Embankment or the Southbank but there are so many more marvellous walks and sights to enjoy when you continue to take a stroll out of Central London to explore its outskirts.

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Dukes Meadows
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Dukes Meadows
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Dukes Meadows
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Dukes Meadows
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Dukes Meadows
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Dukes Meadows
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Dukes Meadows’ Bandstands
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Dukes Meadows

At the end of this part of Dukes Meadows my walking route takes me to Barnes and the eye-catching Barnes Bridge. Followed by Hammersmith Bridge and preceded by Chiswick Bridge, Barnes Bridge is a Grade II listed structure which opened in 1895.

The original bridge on this location was constructed in 1849 with a design created by civil engineer Joseph Locke, whose bridge had two pairs of cast iron arch spins, considerably similar to Richmond Bridge which was also designed by Locke. In the same year the bridge was opened to the railways. However, during the latter stages of the 19th Century concerns were raised over the suitability of cast iron bridges following the collapse of one, and this prompted the construction of the new Barnes Bridge. The new bridge was designed by Edward Andrews and constructed by Head Wrightson on behalf of the London & South Western Railway, opening in 1895.

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Barnes Bridge

An aspect that makes Barnes Bridge unique is that it’s only one of three bridges in London which combines pedestrian and rail use, with the others being Hungerford Bridge & Golden Jubilee Bridges and Fulham Railway Bridge. It’s actually quite a surreal experience walking alongside the railway as normally in London we’re used to walking next to the cars so it has an odd feel about it. Once you get to the end of the pathway on the bridge you’ll find Barnes Bridge Station which has connections to Hounslow and London Waterloo.

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Path on Barnes Bridge
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Walking alongside the Trains!

Like with all the views from London’s bridges, this one doesn’t disappoint and with the houses next to the river it really does have the feel of a seaside town, and you’d expect to see some coloured changing huts or deck chairs! I have mixed feelings on the design of Barnes Bridge as it’s not the most pretty of London’s bridges, but it does have a lot of character and I love the fact it is one of a few that has a railway you can walk next to!

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View from Barnes Bridge

My walk today will leave Barnes Bridge Railway station and take me to Barnes Common, and whilst I take a stroll there I passed more sweet little cottages, with the most vibrant colours.

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Cute Houses of Barnes

I also passed this old building which I would’ve thought used to be a pub, which is now a residential house!

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Used to be a Pub?!

Before I get to Barnes Common I walk through this little secret path which has water flowing underneath it.

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Park Pathway
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Stream next to the Park

Walking along it I come to a really picturesque community park called Vine Road Recreation Ground which highlights all the colours of the season and somewhere to take a moment to relax whilst you watch the world go by.

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Vine Road Recreation Ground
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Vine Road Recreation Ground
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Vine Road Recreation Ground
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Vine Road Recreation Ground

Just out of Vine Road Recreation Ground and on the edge of Barnes Common you come across something I’ve not seen much, a double level crossing with two sets of barriers! It might not be the most exciting of sights, but I thought it was quite cool and unique, once again something new on my walks of London!

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One of Two of Level Crossings!
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The other Level Crossing!

At 49.55 hectares (122.4 acres), Barnes Common is one of the largest protected common lands in London and is made up of nationally scarce lowland acid grassland, meadows, secondary woodland, reed-beds, and rough grassland with heath. The area is designated as a Local Nature Reserve and Site of Nature Conservation Interest, and managed by the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames with assistance from the Friends of Barnes Common.

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Barnes Common
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Barnes Common

The entire area is so magical and enchanting as you weave your way between the trees and along the small pathways onto the open green spaces. We really are truly lucky to have such a beautiful area within our capital and it’s quite the contrast to the touristy areas that people associate London with. It’s commons and woods like these which are one of the main reasons I love exploring and discovering new parts of London as there are many people who would’ve never been to areas like this when they’ve been to the capital. That’s why it gives me wonderful satisfaction in taking these photos and showing you all stunning sights like these!

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Barnes Common
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Barnes Common
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Barnes Common
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Barnes Common
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Barnes Common
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Barnes Common
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Barnes Common

My final stop on my walk is Barnes Green which is right next to Barnes Common, and to get there you go over this lovely little bridge over a river, which is a personal favourite of mine when I explore a park.

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Cute River besides Barnes Commom and Barnes Green
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Bridge to Barnes Green
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Cute River besides Barnes Commom and Barnes Green
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River by Barnes Green

I fell in love with Barnes Green the moment I stepped into it as it really has that village feel about it with the lovely pond at the heart of it. You sometimes forget that even though somewhere is in London, it can still have that picturesque and homely feel about it that you normally find in a countryside town. At the centre of any of village is its green and pond, and Barnes certainly has that!

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Barnes Green
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Pond in Barnes Green
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Pond in Barnes Green
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Pond in Barnes Green
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Pond in Barnes Green
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Pond in Barnes Green

Well that’s all for today’s walk which has seen me explore three of London’s bridges, Fulham & Hammersmith, Chiswick and Barnes! Thanks for joining me and I hope you enjoyed reading about my walk as much as I did doing it and taking photos of its sights!

In the meantime you can catch me on Twitter and Instagram and don’t forget to sign up to my blog too! Also why not have a read of my other walks which explore all over London, from north to south, to west to east via central, there’s something there for you! 🙂 Here are links to them all below for you!

Victoria to Green Park

Marble Arch to Mayfair

The Shard to Monument

King’s Cross to Hampstead Heath

Leadenhall Market to Old Spitalfields Market

Waterloo to The London Eye

St Paul’s Cathedral to Moorgate

Mile End Park to London Fields

Hyde Park Corner to Italian Gardens

Little Venice to Abbey Road

Regent’s Park to Soho Square

Clapham Common to The Albert Bridge

Grosvenor Gardens to Knightsbridge

Holland Park to Meanwhile Gardens

Hackney Downs to Springfield Park

Tower Bridge to Stave Hill

Shoreditch to Islington Green

Highgate to Finsbury Park

Ravenscourt Park to Wormwood Scrubs

Covent Garden to Southwark Bridge

Sources: (not the food sauces)

All photos taken by London Wlogger © Copyright 2018

Londonist: History of Putney Bridge

Friends of Bishop’s Park: History of Bishop’s Park

Fulham FC: History of Craven Cottage

British Listed Buildings: History of the Harrods Furniture Depository

Londonist: History of Hammersmith Bridge

Parks & Gardens: History of Furnival Gardens

Dukes Meadows Park: History of Dukes Meadows

Barnes Village: History of Barnes Bridge

Barnes Common: History of Barnes Common

Ravenscourt Park to Wormwood Scrubs: Colourful Autumnal London

Welcome one and all as I take another stroll across the capital! For my walk today I’ll be embracing the colours of Autumn as I explore Hammersmith & Fulham and Acton to really get into the spirit of the changing of the season. I’ll begin in Ravenscourt Park, go past Acton Green Common and Acton Park before ending my journey at Wormwood Scrubs. So grab the coat, scarf and walking boots!

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Ravenscourt Park to Wormwood Scrubs Park

I start my walk in Ravenscourt Park which is an 8.3 hectare (20.5 acre) public green area in the borough of Hammersmith & Fulham. Its origins date back to the medieval manor and estate of Palingswick (or Paddenswick) Manor which was first recorded on the site in the 12th century.  The name still has significance to the area today with a Paddenswick Road near Ravenscourt Park.

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Ravenscourt Park
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Ravenscourt Park

Back in the 13th century the Manor House within Ravenscourt Park had a moat surrounded by it which today forms part of the lake that is within the park. Whilst in the 14th century the Manor was occupied by King Edward III’s mistress Alice Perrers.

In 1650 the Manor House was rebuilt and in 1747 renamed Ravenscourt after it was sold to Thomas Corbett with the name Ravenscourt probably deriving from the raven on his coat of arms.

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The Ravenscourt House (Source: Friends of Ravenscourt Park)
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The view across the old moat today

Private owner George Scott who was a builder and philanthropist bought the Ravenscourt House in 1812 and a leading landscaper by the name of Humphry Repton helped to lay down the gardens in the estate. Park plans in 1830 indicated that there were 78 houses within the park which had risen to 330 by 1845. The Ravenscourt House was also the first public library in Hammersmith in 1889.

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Ravenscourt Park

George Scott’s family sold the estate to a developer in 1887 with it being acquired by the Metropolitan Board of Works. A year later in 1888 a public park was laid out by J.J. Sexby with the management of the park transferring to the London County Council in 1889. In 1941 the building suffered severe damage during the Second World War. However, in 1965 the park was owned by the Greater London Council and finally the London Borough of Hammersmith in 1971.

The park’s café today is the old stables of the manor and is certainly one of the grandest café’s in London! The park also has a variety of facilities including football pitches, tennis & basketball courts and a playground.

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The old Manor stable is now the park’s cafe

Walking through the park you really get a sense that the season is changing with an array of beautiful colours, all of which look like a watercolour painting and many different shades of yellow, brown, red, orange and gold. When you look at the vast area of the park as well as the lake which used to be the Manor’s moat, you can get a feeling of how the grand estate would’ve looked. The lake is something to behold and matched with the trees colours, it makes for the perfect picture, or painting!

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Ravenscourt Park
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Ravenscourt Park
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Ravenscourt Park
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Ravenscourt Park
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Ravenscourt Park
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Ravenscourt Park

It’s now time to leave the tranquility of Ravenscourt Park to go in search of more pretty autumnal colours in my next stop Acton Green Common. Located next to Turnham Green tube station, the 5.9 hectare (14.5 acres) common is quite unique given that it’s split into two, with a road and crossing in between it.

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Acton Green Common
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Acton Green Common

The Acton Green Common has a place in history as part of the site of the Battle of Brentford during the Civil War when on the 12th November 1642 the Royalists under Prince Rupert surprised them and beat the Parliamentarian army under Lord Essex.

I do love the symmetry where you have trees either side of the pathway and as far as you can see there are trees across the green. Once again the crisp orange colouring comes out perfectly with the sun shining on them which really does brighten up the park. Also the lengthening shadows illustrates the sun is getting lower and winter is on its way.

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Acton Green Common
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Acton Green Common

I’m now going to make my way out of Acton Green Common and onto yet another lovely green space, Acton Park. One aspect you get when walking around Acton is that the trees aren’t just confined to the parks as they can be seen across the roads and houses!

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Acton Symmetry

Acton Park first opened to the public in 1888 as a commemoration to the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria and in 1945 the park’s allotments were converted into temporary houses for ex-servicemen.

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Acton Park
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Acton Park

In London we’re so lucky that nearly every area has some kind of green space where you can relax in the peace and quiet of a park setting. Also it’s not just the grass areas which I love, but the variety of trees are also so remarkable, big ones, tall ones, small ones, thin ones, the list is endless and all have their own distinct look and personality. You really don’t get this when you walk around some areas of central London, so you do have to go off track into the London boroughs to see all of natures glory.

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Acton Park
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Acton Park

It’s now time to leave Acton Park and move onto my final autumnal destination, the quite unique Wormwood Scrubs! Based in the North-Eastern corner of Hammersmith & Fulham, the area is the largest open space in the borough at 80 hectares (200 acres) and is one of the largest commons in London.

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Wormwood Scrubs
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Wormwood Scrubs

The park has been open to the public since 1879 and was even the home of Queens Park Rangers Football Club in the late 1888s.

Its history dates back to the early 19th century when the entire district of Hammersmith & Fulham was open fields with several areas of common land. In 1812 a 77 hectare (190 acre) area known as Wormholt Scrubs was leased by the War Office from the Manor of Fulham. The area was used to exercise cavalry horses which until then had used Hyde Park, Belgrave Square and Regent’s Park. In 1878, 55 hectares (135 acres) of the land became known as Wormwood Scrubs after being bought by the War Office.

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Wormwood Scrubs

In order to create metropolitan exercising ground for the military, in 1879 Parliament passed the Wormwood Scrubs Act. This act enabled the military to expel civilians from the area whenever they were training, but allowed civilians free use of it when they were not. The military were banned from building any permanent structures other than rifle butts on the open land.

The area gained the reputation of being one of the duelling grounds of London with several duels being fought there. The scrubland played a part in the 1908 Olympics with the marathon’s final stages going through it on the route from Windsor Castle to the Olympic Stadium in White City.

In 1910 Wormwood Scrubs gained a significant contribution in aviation history when pioneering airships took flight from an improvised landing ground. Four years later in 1914 all air related activities on the scrubs passed to the authority of the Admiralty with the area remaining an emergency landing ground until the 1930s. During the Second Wold War, the scrubs hosted the military department called The Chief Cable Censorship Department, an outstation of the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park.

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Wormwood Scrubs

Back in 1986 local birdwatcher Lester Holloway set up a campaign to save Scrubs Wood which was under threat from plans by British Rail to turn it into a cleaning depot. The campaign would succeed with an area of the nature reserve known as ‘Lester’s Embankment’ in 1987.

There has been many conservation efforts undertaken on the area with the park home to over 100 species of birds, 250 species of wildflowers, bats and lizards.

The entire area really is something to behold, as it’s a vast area of meadowland with hardly anything around it, there aren’t too many trees or houses, just scrubland and long grass. I have to say it’s one of the first times my walks have taken me to such a place and it’s eerily quiet when you’re stood in the middle of it as there’s literally no one walking through or by it. This is one of the reason why I love exploring London as you come across such weird and wonderful places like this which you’d not normally come across, or even know about.

Well that’s all from me today folks! I hope you enjoyed discovering some of West London’s best green areas which showcased the colours of autumn so amazingly well, which I’m sure you can agree are looking absolutely golden at the moment! I’ll be discovering more of beautful autumnal London next time!

In the meantime you can catch me on Twitter and Instagram and don’t forget to sign up to my blog too and have a read of my other walks, from river ones to park ones, there’s something there for you! 🙂

Sources: (not the food sauces)

All photos taken by London Wlogger unless stated. © Copyright 2018

Friends of Ravenscourt Park: History of Ravenscourt Park

Parks and Gardens: History of Acton Green Common

Ealing.Gov: History of Acton Parks

London Borough of H&F: History of Wormwood Scrubs