St Paul’s Cathedral to Moorgate: The Influence of The Great Fire of London

A warm welcome to a new week, and a new walk! This instalment takes me from the iconic St Paul’s Cathedral past the financial district of Bank before finishing in Finsbury Circus in Moorgate. So grab your boots, and let’s get walking!

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St Paul’s Cathedral to Moorgate

My journey begins at St Paul’s Cathedral which has had a dedication to Paul the Apostle (St Paul) on its site since AD 604.

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The grand St Paul’s Cathedral

The cathedral we see today is at least the fourth to have stood on this site. It was created by one of Britain’s most famous architects, Sir Christopher Wren between 1675 and 1710, with its predecessor having been destroyed in The Great Fire of London in 1666.

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The cathedral stands at 365 feet (111m) high which made it the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1967… which is remarkably small when you consider The Shard is the tallest building now at 1,016 feet (309.6m)! After Liverpool Cathedral, St Paul’s is the second largest church building in the UK, and has one of the most distinctive domes in the world.

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The area surrounding St Paul’s is steeped in history and sights too, with the Paternoster Square sitting opposite the cathedral. It can trace its origins back to medieval Paternoster Row, where St Paul’s clergy would hold rosary beads and recite the ‘Paternoster’, or Lord’s Prayer (Paternoster translates as ‘Our Father’) whilst walking through the area.

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Temple Bar with St Paul’s in the background

The square is 70,000m² of office space, retail outlets and cafés. Standing at the entrance of the square is the Temple Bar arch, which was constructed by Sir Christopher Wren between 1669 and 1672. Its name derives from the gateway’s original position near the Temple Law courts, and displays its four original states  (Charles I, Charles II, James I and Queen Anne of Denmark), and was carved by John Bushnell.

It was one of the eight original City gateways – the others being Aldgate, Aldersgate, Bishopsgate, Cripplegate, Ludgate, Moorgate and Newgate.

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The Temple Bar Gate is actually the only one of these gates that has survived, with the others being demolished by the end of the 18th century. However, by 1878 it had become too expensive to maintain and caused traffic congestion. This lead to it being dismantled. Though in 1880, Sir Henry Meux bought all the stones and rebuilt it as a gateway to his park and mansion at Theobalds Park (located between Enfield and Cheshunt).

In 1984 the gates were purchased by the Temple Bar Trust from the Meux Trust, and in 2004 it was returned from Theobalds Park and re-erected at the entrance to Paternoster Square.

Another notable landmark in the Square is the Paternoster Column, which stands at 23.3m tall, and was erected in 2008.

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Paternoster Column

Comprised of a hexagonal stone base, a fluted Corinthian column and a glided copper urn, it was designed to be the ‘centre of gravity’ for the entire Paternoster development. The structure is a recreation of those designed for the west portico of the old St Paul’s. Also the London Stock Exchange is located within the square, which was founded in 1801.

From Paternoster Square and St Paul’s I take a short walk to a rather pleasant area known as Festival Gardens.

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Festival Gardens next to St Paul’s

First laid in 1951 by Sir Albert Richardson for the Corporation of London’s contribution to the Festival of Britain, it’s based over once bomb damaged land from the Second World War.

The gardens include a wall fountain, which was a gift from the Worshipful Company of Gardeners. Erected in 1973, the sculpture in the garden is that of ‘The Young Lovers’ by George Ehrlich.  The gardens provide a perfect view of St Paul’s and across the rest of the surrounding area!

From the tranquil gardens and splendour of St Paul’s, my walk takes me onto my next destination, Bank! Within the vicinity of the Bank area, there are three famous monuments, Mansion House, the Royal Exchange, and the Bank of England.

The Mansion House was completed in 1758 as a residence for Lord Mayors to undertake their work as heads of the City’s governmental, judicial and civic duties. Before the Mansion House was constructed they used to have to do these functions in their own houses or halls, a true Working from Home initiative!

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The Mansion House

Designed by George Dance the Elder, this Grade I listed building is in the heart of the City, right next to Bank tube station. Today, the house has a collection of plates and art including sculptures and 84 Dutch paintings of the Harold Samuel Art Collection.

Just a slight stroll from the Mansion House takes me to another synonymous financial part of Bank, The Royal Exchange. The origins of The Royal Exchange date back to 1566 when a wealthy merchant by the name of Sir Thomas Gresham established London’s first purpose-built centre for trading stocks. Its design was based on the world’s oldest financial exchange, the Bourse in Antwerp, Belgium.

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The Royal Exchange, with the Cheesegrater and The Gherkin behind it

It was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth I in 1571, and one thing to note is that if you ever wanted a drink there, you could, as it was awarded a license to sell alcohol! Two additional floors were added to the original trading floor in 1660 to house retail businesses. However, in 1666, The Great Fire of London destroyed it, and it took three years for it to be reopened. The 1669 site was designed by City surveyor Edward Jerman.

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Amazingly, and by a shocking coincidence, the new Royal Exchange was destroyed by a fire too in 1838, which was most likely caused by an overheated stove in Lloyd’s Coffee House on nearby Lombard Street… talk about bad luck! It was certainly third time lucky in 1844 when the current Royal Exchange was built and designed by Sir William Tite.

Traders moved out of the building after the Second World War which left it disused for several decades. The London International Financial Futures Exchange moved into the building in 1982 which meant trading returned there. By 2001 architect Aukett Fitzroy Robinson remodeled it and turned it into a luxury shopping and dining destination. Today, The Royal Exchange is one of London’s leading landmarks, which has kept its retail theme with boutique shops and dining offerings.

To the side of The Royal Exchange sits The Bank of England which was founded in 1694, and was initially to act as the Government’s banker and debt manager. It’s the central bank of the UK, with its Monetary Policy Committee responsible for setting the economy’s Base Rate and Interest Rates.

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The Bank of England

Back in 1688 there were calls for a national or public bank to mobilise the nation’s resources, given that businesses were flourishing, though money and credit systems were weak.

Scottish entrepreneur William Paterson invited the public to invest in a new project, and in just a few weeks, £1.2 million was invested to form the initial capital stock of the Bank of England. This was lent to the Government in return for a Royal Charter, which was sealed on the 27th July 1694, and the Bank became the Government’s banker and debt manager.

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The Back of the Bank

During the 1920s and 1930s, the Bank was redesigned by Sir Herbert Baker, whilst surviving several bombs during the Blitz. In 1946 it was nationalised and subsequently came under the ownership of the Government, rather than private stockholders. Full responsibility for monetary policy was transferred to The Bank of England in 1997. Today, as well as being the UK’s central bank to maintain monetary and financial stability, a free museum of its history is inside too.

After taking in all that financial jargon, it’s time to get some peaceful rest! And my final location of today’s walk can provide just that, as I head to Finsbury Circus in Moorgate.

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Finsbury Circus

The gardens were created in 1815 by William Montague and George Dance the Younger on the site that was originally part of Finsbury Manor. A campaign led by Alpheus Morton to make the park public succeeded in the early 20th century, having been a private space for the surrounding buildings.

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Finsbury Circus

The bandstand in the gardens has been there since 1955, though currently the area behind it is being used as a major construction site for Crossrail.

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Finsbury Circus Bandstand

I’ve seen how The Great Fire of London played its part in the reconstruction of some of the capital’s most iconic buildings, and how London’s banking district plays its part in both the City’s and the UK’s history.

Thanks for joining me, and I hope you’ve enjoyed the walk! Stay tuned for another walk next week 🙂 In the meantime, you can follow me on TwitterInstagram and Facebook, and don’t forget to sign up to my blog too 🙂

Sources: (not the food sauces)

All photos taken by London Wlogger. © Copyright 2017

History of St Paul’s Cathedral – St Paul’s Cathedral

About Paternoster Square – Paternoster Square 

Gardens of St Paul’s – City of London

History of Mansion House – City of London

History of The Royal Exchange – The Royal Exchange

History of The Bank of England – The Bank of England

History of Finsbury Circus – Historic England

Leadenhall Market to Old Spitalfields Market: From Selling Food to Food Architecture

Welcome once again as I delve into London’s great walks and history! Today’s journey takes me from one market to another. I begin at Leadenhall Market and then go via some well-known modern landmarks, The Cheese Grater and The Gherkin. I then stop by London Liverpool Street Station before going through Petticoat Lane Market and ending at Old Spitalfields Market.

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Leadenhall Market to Old Spitalfields Market

I start at Leadenhall Market, located in the heart of the city of London, which dates back to the 14th century, and is on what used to be a centre of Roman London.

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Leadenhall Market

Back in the 1300s, the Manor of Leadenhall belonged to Sir Hugh Neville, though within a few years it became a popular meeting place for poulterers and cheese mongers. In 1411 Leadenhall was gifted to the City by former Lord Major Richard ‘Dick’ Whittington. By 1440 the then Lord Mayor Simon Eyre replaced the manor hall with a public granary, school, and chapel as a gift to London’s citizens.

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The beautifully vintage market

The market then became enlarged to start selling food produce, such as poultry, grain, eggs, butter, cheese and other items. Over the next 200 years other markets were added with wool, leather, and cutlery proprietors appearing. It soon became one of the centres of commerce in the city.

Like most buildings in 1666, the market suffered a small amount of damage in the Great Fire of London, and during its rebuilding it was split into three separate areas; a Beef Market, the Green Yard, and the Herb Market.

Leadenhall Market was redesigned in 1881 by the City’s architect, Sir Horace Jones, who was also the architect for Billingsgate and Smithfield Market’s. By 1972 the stone structure with wrought iron and glass was replaced and given Grade II heritage listed status.

Until the 20th century the poultry market remained, and by the mid 20th century shops were used for general retailing and leisure. Today, this makes it one of the City’s five principal shopping centres. One thing you notice amongst the Victorian buildings is that every store, whether that’s Barbour or Pizza Express, has the same vintage branding you’d see centuries ago. This for me makes it quite the unique place.

From a market that sells cheese, we move to one that is shaped like something you’d use for it! 122 Leadenhall Street, or the Leadenhall Building, or as it’s affectionately known as ‘The Cheesegrater’, is a 225m (737ft) building that opened in July 2014. Designed by Graham Stirk of Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, developed by British Land and Oxford Properties, and built by Laing O’Rourke, it covers 70,000 square metres of glass; the same area as 9 football pitches! It has 48 floors, and houses many corporate firms.

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Cheesegrater (Credit: @CheesegraterLdn)

The nickname of The Cheesegrater came when the City of London Corporation’s chief planning officer, Peter Rees, commented to Richard Rogers, a senior partner of Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, that he could ‘imagine his wife using it to grate parmesan’, and the name stuck! (And of course because it looks like a cheesegrater!) It also is slanted to have less impact on the protected view of St Paul’s Cathedral, and I have to say the architecture of it is grate….!

I’m taking just a slight detour from one food building to another, and I end up at The Gherkin! The commercial skyscraper was completed in December 2003, and opened in 2004.

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The Gherkin

It’s 180 metres (591ft) tall with 41 storeys. Its structure was designed by Norman Foster and Arup group with it being erected by Skanska, taking two years to construct.

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Beautiful Gherkin at night (Credit: The Gherkin)

It’s commonly referred to as one of the City’s most recognisable examples of contemporary architecture, and I have to say, it’s up there with other older landmarks as a distinctive part of our skyline.

I leave two of the capital’s most famous modern-day landmarks to visit one of London’s main networks to the East, Essex and East Anglia. London Liverpool Street Station was opened in 1874 as a new terminus for the Great Eastern Railway with connections to the Metropolitan railway, the world’s first underground railway.

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London Liverpool Street Station

The station was built on the site originally occupied by the Bethlem Royal Hospital. Its roof was designed and built by the Fairburn Engineering Company, who also supplied the roof for the Royal Albert Hall.

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Inside the station with the hustle and bustle of commuting

It wasn’t until the mid-1980s that it went under major redevelopment work with the modernising of the station’s facilities and simplifying the layout, but still retaining the grand 19th century architecture.

Outside the station stands a statue to the Children of the Kindertransport, which marks the people of Britain who saved the lives of 10,000 unaccompanied, mainly, Jewish children who fled Nazi persecution in 1938 and 1939. It was dedicated by the Associates of Jewish Refugees Central British Fund for World Jewish Relief in 2006.

Today, London Liverpool Street has 123 million visitors a year and is the main connection to Stansted Airport, with the tube lines including Central, Circle, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines.

I’d love to quickly jet set to Stansted Airport, but I’m off to hit more markets! The next of these is Petticoat Lane Market located near Old Spitalfields and Brick Lane, which is one of the oldest and most famous markets in London. It wasn’t formally registered and given legal trading until 1936.

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Entrance to Petticoat Lane Market

The first reference to Petticoat Lane came in the early 1600s when it was called Peticote Lane with traders in its early days selling clothes and other cheap, second-hand items. Petticoat Lane Market is split into two markets in two locations with one on Wentworth Street which runs six days a week, and other on Middlesex Street that is only open on Sundays.

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Petticoat Lane Market on a Sunday offering a variety of items

My final destination on my walk takes me to yet another one of London’s famous markets, Old Spitalfields!

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Entrance to Old Spitalfields Market

The name Spitalfields takes its name from the hospital and priory, St Mary’s Spittel that was founded in 1197. The market first began trading in 1638 when traders used to work from a collection of sheds and stalls to meet the needs of an evergrowing London population. It soon became the popular place for fresh produce while trading six days a week.

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The busy marketplace

By 1876 the market fell into decline due to a reputation of it being a cheap area in which to live and trade. This prompted former market porter Robert Horner to buy a short lease on the market to rebuild it. It was completed in 1893 at a cost of £80,000. The City of London acquired direct control of the market in 1920 and extended the buildings eight years later. With popularity and a bigger reputation, in May 1991 the wholesale fruit and vegetable market was forced to move to Leyton, East London to keep up with demand. This is known as New Spitalfields Market.

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Vibrant Old Spitalfields Market

At the end of 2005, after 18 years, the Spitalfields regeneration programme was completed with new two public spaces, Bishops Square and Crispin Place, a public art programme, an events programme, retailers and restaurants.

When you visit the market today it’s a mix of fast food, designers, artists, with vintage and antique clothing and furniture!

Well, it has been an amazing walk to experience not just one, but three of London’s famous markets, as well as some of the most recognisable modern buildings.

Please share your memories and thoughts with me in the comments section, and don’t forget to follow the blog, and me on Twitter and Instagram

Thanks for joining me, and I’ll see you next time! 🙂

Sources: (not the food sauces)

All photos taken by London Wlogger, unless credit given. © Copyright 2016

History of Leadenhall Market

The Cheesegrater Twitter Account

The Leadenhall Building

The Gherkin Building

History of London Liverpool Street Station

History of Petticoat Lane Market

Old Spitalfields Market History